How The Secret Chambers Of The Pyramid Was Discovered by Muon Particles: A Detailed Article

Thoughts have been going on for a long time about how to peek inside the pyramids without breaking the pyramid. Finally, unexpected success came in November 2017. A secret chamber was found inside the Great Pyramid of Giza. It is helped to find a particle that is raining down from space at every moment and piercing us, but we do not notice.

 The Great Pyramid Muon Tomography

If you ever visit Egypt, the Great Pyramid of Giza is a must-visit. Talk about one of the seven wonders of the world! As you descend through the tunnel inside the pyramid, you will suddenly see a passage going up. When you catch it, you will come to a huge gallery (some like the gallery of a museum), you will see the queen's room. The thought will naturally come to mind: I don't know how much more is in the stomach of this giant! It is now possible to answer this question without digging into the pyramids.

 Inside The Giza's Pyramid. Source
The first thing that comes to mind when you want this kind of clairvoyance is X-ray. Just as a scanner on a metro rail or airport searches for weapons hidden inside a briefcase, X-rays are sent inside the pyramid to find out its pulse. One side will be without X-ray and the other side will be caught through it. From the middle to where the X-rays were absorbed, it can be said from the inner film. But there are sands!

X-rays cannot pass through the walls of the pyramid. That is, where it is possible to place the source of the X-ray and where it is possible to place the detection device, the X-ray gets stuck somewhere in the gap between the two.

This problem is not just peeking inside the pyramid, it is seen in many more cases. The horrors of 9/11 raised fears of a possible nuclear attack in the United States. Surveillance has begun on whether the uranium atomic bomb material is being smuggled through a loophole at the country's border. But the problem was that even after the X-ray passed the iron, the lead was absorbed by the heavy metal. So, the box in which the bomb material was being smuggled had to be mixed with lead. What's inside the box, the X-ray scanner won't find its whereabouts. Or to put it more accurately, the energy that X-rays would need to detect radioactive material could cause physical damage to radiation to scanner operators or truck drivers if they are close to X-rays.
X-rays cannot pass through the walls of the pyramid.
The solution came from the Los Alamos National Laboratory. What X-rays can't penetrate, another particle can easily penetrate. The particle, which has the same charge as an electron but is very heavy (more than 200 times heavier), is called a Muon.

What Is Muon?

Although the quote of the Nobel Prize-winning scientist I. I. Rabbi, we may feel the same way when we hear about this particle. As far back as I can remember, I learned in school physics that in the center of a molecule there is a nucleus rich in protons and neutrons and another particle revolves around it in a specific cell: an electron. These three particles were introduced. Nowadays, there is a lot of talk about particle physics for the benefit of the activity of God-particles, but it is difficult to know where a particle comes from and what its variations are.

Efforts to dispel that darkness can be made elsewhere. For now, let us understand the muon by pressing on the shoulder of the electron we all know. As mentioned earlier, this particle is 200 times heavier than an electron. So why are we talking about electrons? Where is the similarity? What kind of force can influence them, that's where the game is on!

How many types of forces are there again? Actually, there are four types of forces in a particle:

1. gravitational force,
2. the electromagnetic force,
3. the strong force,
4. weak force.

We are familiar with the first two. The force created by the mass of an object is the force of gravity and the force created by the charge is the electromagnetic force. There is an example of the third in the nucleus at the center of the molecule: the bond between the neutron and the proton comes from the strength of that strong force.

And the fourth is a little weird: no one is attracted to it, but the force is responsible for decay. This force is at the core of the lion's share of natural radioactivity in the universe. This results in one type of particle being converted to another type of particle by radioactive radiation. We will see a few examples later.

Of these four types of forces, all but one of the three can be affected by an electron.
Electron-likes particles, which are not affected by a strong force, have a special name. They are called leptons.

Another example of a particle of this lepton species is the muon. There is also another similarity of the muon with electrons. What I said a little while ago: Both have the same charge. That is, in the presence of another charged substance, a force equal to that of an electron is applied to it. (Not all leptons need it.) The only difference is that. And because of that difference, what the electron can't penetrate, Muon can do it effortlessly. But coming to that story. Let's see first, where to go to get muon.
Electrons and muons are affected by the same type of forces. Particles of this genus are called leptons.

Where does muon come from?

If something appears to us without a visible source, the question is asked: "Did it fall from the sky?" Muon actually fell from the sky. The particles that fall into our atmosphere from the outside world collide with the molecules in the atmosphere to form many transient particles. One of them is pion. Muo was soon made from it. With a bit of a reaction like this:
$\pi^+ \rightarrow \mu^+ + v_\mu$
$\pi^- \rightarrow \mu^- + \bar{v}_\mu$
On the left is the charged pion ($\pi$) and on the right is the muon ($\mu$) of the same charge and a neutrino ($v_\mu$).

These muons themselves are transient. So they should not be seen. Electrons and neutrinos are supposed to break down.
$\mu^- \rightarrow e^- + \bar{v}_e + v_\mu$
$\mu^+ \rightarrow e^+ + v_e + \bar{v}_\mu$
This is where Einstein's special relativity comes into play. Suppose one observer is stationary and the other is moving. Einstein's special relativity says that the speed of light is the same for both. How is that possible? The two of them are running at two speeds! This is possible only if two people's clocks show different time intervals between the same events. That is if one's watch is slower than another's. The calculation shows that the hand of the clock moves slowly in the moving frame. Read this article to know more about this.

This means that what was in the rest frame of the muon was only 2.2 microseconds, it increases a lot when viewed in relation to the earth. The observer sitting on the ground said, "The watch of the observer pressed on the neck of the muon is ticking. In the two cases where the guy measured 2.2 microseconds, much more time has passed on my watch. ” How much depends on how fast the Muon is coming. But the point is, a sufficient number of muons have time to cross the atmosphere and land on Earth. In many cases, it is possible to make checks by using the slashed muons.

No wall can stop them

It's a bit of an exaggeration, but Muon has a much higher penetrating power than X-rays or electrons.

There is talk of X-rays because X-rays are still champions in overcoming these obstacles. But compared to Muon, it can be called a sneeze. The maximum power of practical X-rays reaches 100 keV (kilo electron-volts). X-ray particles of this energy can trap heavy lead elements. How to prevent it?

By absorbing X-rays of this energy, electrons can jump into distant cells near the center of an atom. Since the farther chambers are farther away in the case of heavy elements, it takes more energy to jump. So heavy molecules are needed to absorb high-energy X-rays. But if there are heavy elements, X-rays are absorbed.

On the other hand, the mass of a muon is much greater and its kinetic energy is much greater than that of X-rays because its velocity is close to that of light. As we can see, the kinetic energy of a moving muon becomes 105.6 MeV if its speed is 75% of the speed of light. And the muons continue to reach that speed. This kinetic energy is so high that it is impossible to think of the above X-ray absorption method. This is because the electrons of a molecule cannot absorb this amount of energy.
Muon has a much higher kinetic energy than ordinary X-rays, so Muon can easily penetrate what X-rays cannot penetrate.
There is also the possibility of physical damage caused by X-rays. Muon from the outside world travels through our body all the time, so if there was any physical harm from it, it would have happened in already. So, They have nothing to fear. Not only that, but muon-based detection devices are also cheaper than X-ray devices. (Frankly...Obviously)

Another particle that can be compared to a muon is the electron itself. Let's compare the four types of forces we learned earlier:

• Strong force: Both electrons and muons do not collapse due to the attraction of the strong force of the nucleus in the center of the atom. As I said a little earlier, both of them are particles of the Lepton family.

• Weak force: Muon collapses near the weak force. But as I said before, their lifespan as special relativity increases with the earth before it collapses.

• Gravitational force: During this lifetime, muons fall under the other two forces, namely gravity, and electromagnetic force. The force of gravity is so insignificant compared to the electromagnetic force in the world of particles that it cannot be detected.

• Electromagnetic force: Both electrons and muons collapse near the strong force of the nucleus of the atom, although it does not collapse. I'm not going to go into the details of exactly how it collapsed. Suffice it to say that in an electromagnetic field, when a charged particle slows down, it loses energy through radiation. This radiation is called Bremsstrahlung. This is where the muon becomes 206 times heavier than the electron. It is less affected by the presence of electromagnetic forces, so it loses less energy through Bremsstrahlung radiation.

There is only one purpose in talking so much: the electron that is compared to muon in all respects loses energy much faster than muon. So what the electron cannot penetrate, Muon effortlessly can.

Drawing 3D images using muon tomography or muon

The source of the muon is available for free. It was also understood that it could penetrate matter and go deeper than many particles. But how exactly will it be used? The basic principle is this: whether it is a large crate or a pyramid wall, there is a structure behind that outer covering. Somewhere hollow, somewhere full. The purpose of tomography is to reconstruct that structure within the computer, with the help of a measurement. What is measured in muon tomography is how much the muon has changed direction across walls or boxes.
The purpose of tomography is to reconstruct the internal structure of an object within a computer, using a single measurement.
Suppose the box is completely hollow and the wall is not thick. The muon will pass the box in a fairly straight line. The distribution or angular distribution of the muon with the direction before entering the box will remain the same beyond the box. Distribution with direction means that the direction in which the muon is caught in the format. Again, if the box is full, the muon will deviate from its starting direction. If such a distance is to be covered, the muon may not reach the other side but will be scattered here and there. If there is something in the middle of it, that is, somewhere hollow, somewhere filled, then the change in the direction of the muon will depend on how much space it is passing through. If more space is crossed, the chances of changing direction will decrease.
So, measuring the distribution of muon with the direction gives a rough idea of ​​where the box is hollow and where it is full. How it is measured is inside the pyramid, there is the manipulation of the scientific team.

Footprints of Muon

The direction of the fleeing Muon was measured in three ways in the Pyramids of Giza. In case of any defect in the method of measuring in the same way, if there is a mistake, then this system. There are many instances of such mistakes in the history of observation. For example, in 2011 there was an uproar over the search for fast neutrinos from light. It was later found that the device had a loose connection. In order to reduce that possibility, the direction of the exit of the muon was measured in three different ways.

The most portable measuring instrument was developed by researchers at the University of Nagoya in Japan. Nuclear emulsion film. The thing is a rectangular plate, working on the principle of the ordinary photographic plate. When the muon particle passes through it, it leaves its mark. If you want to see that impression, you have to develop the film later.

How to leave an impression? These plates are coated with silver halide crystals. The muon particle turns the silver halide into silver. As a result, when the muon particle passes through the plate, some silver grains are left in its path. Later, when developing the plate, the plate is washed so that the silver halide is washed away, leaving empty silver grains. And since then, Muon's journey has been known.

Notice that the journey of Muon is through a coating on a plate. That is a short journey. If the grains in that coating are thick, then it is difficult to understand the direction of the muon. Let's take a good example to understand this. Suppose the grains of silver halide were so thick that the muon plate could make a single silver granule from silver halide.

No one can understand from which direction Muon came after washing the plate and seeing that one grain. Now let's make the grains a little smaller so that Muon leaves two silver grains in its journey. One after another from this it can be inferred from which direction Muon entered. Thus, the smaller the grain, the more precisely the direction of the path of the muon can be measured.

Researchers at the University of Nagoya used nanometer-sized granules on their plates to fine-tune the path of the muon. They placed the plates in the place where the pyramid could be reached: in the queen's chamber and in a groove beside her. One of the great advantages of placing photographic plates is that they do not require any electricity to keep them "on". The pyramid can be placed where needed.

This was the finest method of determining the structure of a pyramid. But two more instruments were used in the search. One is the scintillator hodoscope, where the path of the muon becomes brighter in the pulse of the point-to-point light. It also came from the Japanese (company name KEK). The second device came from a French company. It is a device for arranging gas chambers filled with argon so that the journey of the muon is easily caught. However, it could not be placed inside the pyramid. The muon was counted by sitting outside the pyramid.

What came out as a result of observation

This observation was made in the pyramids of Khafre in 1970 with the help of Muon. However, there were no advanced photographic plates made by researchers at the University of Nagoya at the time with the Fujifilm Company. Anyway, nothing to say about the service.

There was no hint that anything could be found this time. The angular distribution of the muon captured on the photographic plate (where the muon is, that picture or plot) is inserted into the computer.

As expected, plenty of muon on some sides, relatively low on some. However, there are some hollow spaces in the pyramid: the Aforesaid king's room, the queen's room, the grand gallery. A plot or a picture of it has been made by calculating where the muon should be found by taking them. In fact, the format of the muon can be found in arithmetic, these two are seen one on top of the other (the picture below is one of them).

 Observations: The solid line is calculated, the red dashes are actually seen.  It was already known that the B hump would come, it was the  Grand Gallery. But the A hump is completely unexpected.

Wherever there should be more muon for the already known structures, it was captured in both pictures. The number of muons suddenly rose to the top like a camel's hump in a picture actually found in a special place, but it was not found in the calculated picture.

This difference was found in the actual observations with the numbers in all three methods. Which means it's about to be the most delusional time of the year, as well. There is only one explanation for the unexpectedly large number of muons in a particular direction. In addition to the familiar chambers, there is another empty space in the pyramid.

Not a small gap, the place is about the size of a grand gallery. Now that there is another secret room closed on all sides of the design of the pyramid - this is such an unnecessary gap, it will take more observation to understand. But soon another "door" to the history of the Great Pyramid is about to open.
There is only one explanation for the unexpectedly large number of muons in a particular direction: there are spaces in the pyramid in addition to the familiar chambers.
‘Big Void’ or ‘Big Hole’. Researchers are calling this unknown secret cell by this name. An entire mission was launched around this issue: Scan Pyramids. You can watch many interesting videos on their website: https://www.scanpyramids.org/. They are naturally overwhelmed by this discovery inside the Great Pyramid.

Conclusion

Although papyrus documents were found in 2013 about the construction of the pyramids, nothing is known or found about the structure of the pyramids or what was supposed to be inside (refer to the discovery of pyramid-related documents in the reference below). Researchers have worked hard to find a way to keep that pyramid intact.

The exact help came from particle physicists. This discovery proved again that it is almost impossible to determine in advance which is the science of work and which is useless. No one could have imagined that the cosmic ray from the outside world, and especially the muon particle derived from it, could be used in the study of history.

There are more striking uses of muon tomography. As I said before, muons are now used to detect radioactive material beyond lead shields. When the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant was damaged by an earthquake in 2011, the Japanese government decided to shut it down. But it can't be done just by saying stop. It is necessary to determine how much radioactive material is left inside and where it has melted and stuck. Only then can a table be drawn to remove that element and free the place from radioactive radiation. But who will do the measurement by entering the nuclear reactor? Miyunakana appeared as the savior again. There are more like it.

It is not possible to say today which direction the muon tomography will match. However, it can be said for sure that many deep problems will be solved.

Cover Image Source: https://www.scanpyramids.org

References:

Some Information Was Collected From https://www.nature.com/articles/nature24647
Nuclear Emulsion Technology: https://www.nature.com/articles/159186a0, https://arxiv.org/pdf/1604.04199.pdf
Discuss this discovery in the media: https://www.digitaltrends.com/cool-tech/great-pyramid-muon-tomography/
Here is the story of the discovery of the pyramid-related documents: Tallet, P., Les papyrus de la Mer Rouge 1: The “journal de Merer” (Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale, 2017).

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